Monday, August 26, 2013

Moshidora and the Progress Principle

Peter Drucker
In the first half of 2010, Peter Drucker's 1973 book Management: Task, Responsibilities, Practices sold over 300,000 copies in Japan. When compared to the 100,000 copies sold in the previous 26 years, the leap is pretty remarkable. "The unlikely catalyst for this cultish enthusiasm," explains The Economist, "is a fictional teenager called Minami. Like many high-school girls in Japan, she becomes the gofer for the baseball team's male coach. Unlike many of her compatriots, she is the kind of girl, as the book says, who leaps before she looks. Horrified by the team's lack of ambition, she sets it the goal of reaching the high-school championships. She stumbles upon Drucker's 1973 book, and it helps her turn the rabble into a team." Minami is the main character of a popular 2009 Japanese novel entitled (in English) What If the Manageress of a High School Baseball Team read Drucker's "Management"?, or Moshidora for short.[1] A manga adaptation was launched in late 2010, while the film adaptation was released in 2011. I have yet to track down a copy of the novel or manga, though my, shall we say, less-than-stellar Japanese would be of no help when reading them. Furthermore, the movie wasn't exactly Best Foreign Language Film material. However, the 10-episode anime TV series that aired in 2011 was quite good and actually captured what I love about management, management literature, and Drucker's work in particular.

Episode 5 ("Minami Abandons Traditional High School Baseball") stood out the most to me because it was able to demonstrate the principle of growth, the spirit of which can be applied personally from business to sports to spirituality. After Minami discovers the concept of "innovation" in Episode 4 and encourages the team's coach to revolutionize high school baseball by means of it,[2] Coach Makoto implements a "no bunt, no ball" strategy: in order to reduce the pitcher's time on the field and increase defense, the pitcher throws only strikes. Sacrifice bunts are also eliminated, upping the chance of runs without taking an out. The team tests their new strategy at an exhibition game against a college team (whose players are on the national level). After the college team gains a 10-run lead, the strategy looks as if it is a failure. However, Minami realizes that her team's pitch count and number of field mistakes is decreasing with each inning (they had cut it in half by the time Minami noticed). During the final inning, Minami's team prevents their rival from scoring and gets their only two runs of the game. Even though the score was 34-2 (and ended early due to the mercy rule), Minami and her team were thrilled. Their strategy had resulted in significant growth and development, even within the course of one game. On the surface, the strategy looked like a failure. But in the long run, it took the team to the National Championship.

This is a perfect example of what Harvard's Teresa Amabile and psychologist Steven Kramer call "small wins."[3] When we think of progress, we often imagine major breakthroughs. Yet, these big moments are rare. Only looking at long-term goals or big accomplishments can be discouraging. Minor milestones can be surprisingly motivating and increase what Amabile and Kramer refer to as "inner work life":

Even ordinary, incremental progress can increase people’s engagement in the work and their happiness during the workday. Across all types of events our participants reported, a notable proportion (28%) of incidents that had a minor impact on the project had a major impact on people’s feelings about it. Because inner work life has such a potent effect on creativity and productivity, and because small but consistent steps forward, shared by many people, can accumulate into excellent execution, progress events that often go unnoticed are critical to the overall performance of organizations.[4]

On a larger scale, this should be instructive on how to approach personal development of any kind. "It’s unnecessary and unhelpful to lash ourselves into a frenzy to try and vault to perfection in one leap," writes Nathaniel Givens. We all go through "transitional periods of growth" and should not attempt to "leap-frog our way to Celestial natures." We need to engage the work at hand. Progress is as much about the present as it is about the future.

1. The full Japanese title is Moshi Kōkō Yakyū no Joshi Manager ga Drucker no "Management" o Yondara.

2. I love Minami's "a-ha" moments. The abstract scenery that Minami is placed within along with the accompanying music is an awesome portrayal of insight and inspiration. 

3. See Teresa Amabile, Steven Kramer, The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2011).

4. Teresa Amabile, Steven Kramer, "The Power of Small Wins," Harvard Business Review 89:5 (May 2011): 75.
The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2011 - See more at:
The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2011 - See more at:
The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2011 - See more at:
The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2011 - See more at:

Wednesday, August 14, 2013

Still Undervalued

Over at MarketWatch, Rex Nutting (you know, the guy who said President Obama's spending binge never happened)[1] has an article claiming that uncertainty wasn't holding the economy back. Why? To oversimplify, the economy is still sluggish despite most policies being set. The only uncertainty that remains is that which is typical to the economy:

In fact, neither Congress nor the Fed is likely to change any policies at all between now and early 2015. It wouldn’t be a stretch to argue that there’s never been a time with less uncertainty about economic policy since World War II ended. That doesn’t mean uncertainty has gone away. There’s plenty of it, but it’s not about policy, it’s about the economy itself. Will any customers show up? Will the bank give us the loan? Will I have a job? Will the bull market continue? Where will interest rates go? Will China keep growing? Will Europe ever grow again? Will gasoline prices rise? Will home prices fall?

I've written about uncertainty and its effects before (prior to the election). And I'm not exactly convinced by Nutting's claim. The NFIB's Small Business Optimism Index saw a drop in June. NFIB chief economist Bill Dunkelberg explained, "It certainly doesn’t help that the endless stream of delays and capitulations of certain provisions of the healthcare law adds to the uncertainty felt by owners. Until growth returns to the small-business half of the economy, it will be hard to generate meaningful economic growth and job creation." This isn't just general uncertainty, but the leftovers of the Great Recession. It is helpful to review the NFIB's Dec. 2009 report:

But the other major concern is the level of uncertainty being created by government, the usually source of uncertainty for the economy. The “turbulence” created when Congress is in session is often debilitating, this year being one of the worst. Themes including “tax more,” “tax the rich even more,” “VAT taxes,” higher energy costs due to Cap and Trade, mandates and taxes for health care, threats of “stimulus II,” incomprehensible deficits, and a huge pool of liquidity created by the Federal Reserve Bank that threatens price stability and higher interest rates. The list goes on and on. There is not much to look forward to here and good reason to “keep your powder dry.” Uncertainly is the enemy of the real economy as well as financial markets.

Uncertainty has been plaguing small businesses and business in general from the get go and continues to today. The NABE March 2013 Economic Policy Survey found a "wide agreement on the panel that uncertainty regarding fiscal policy still is contributing to a slower economic recovery. Nearly 80 percent of respondents held this view, down only slightly from the 87 percent reported in the September 2012 survey." It also doesn't help Nutting's case that the Federal Reserve Bank of San Fransisco recently published a study demonstrating that the U.S. labor market recovered more slowly after the Great Recession than previous recessions and largely due to high uncertainty regarding economic policy. Uncertainty "pushed the unemployment rate 1.3 percentage points higher by late 2012 than it would have been based on trends from the decade before the downturn." The St. Louis Fed reported in April 2013 that economic policy uncertainty was one reason that firms were hoarding cash as well as declines in real GDP and in real business fixed investment.

Even though economic policy uncertainty may be lower than the past few years, Nutting's case seems to be overstated. Uncertainty has definitely held the economy back.

1. See the responses from James Pethokoukis, Veronique de Rugy, and Glenn Kessler. Or take a look at the charts on government spending provided by the Mercatus Center at George Mason University.

Monday, August 12, 2013

"Worlds Without End" Panel: Sunstone Symposium 2013

The following is a formalized transcript (with some clarification here and there) of my presentation at the 2013 Sunstone Symposium. The panel discussed the blog Worlds Without End and was shared with Christopher Smith and Cheryl Bruno. The abstract read as follows:

In mid-2012,
Worlds Without End was launched by two non-LDS scholars to further discussion of Mormon Studies as an academic discipline. Contributors are experts in fields ranging from management to history to the Hebrew Bible. WWE is a demonstration of how disparate and varied concepts can shed light on Mormonism, its culture, and its people. This panel will discuss the blog's origins, non-LDS interest in Mormon Studies, and highlight several of the most interesting and compelling posts from the past year.

This is cross-posted at Worlds Without End.

I'm rather excited to be here. This is actually my first time at Sunstone. I'm from Texas and we don't see many conferences like this down there. I remember on mission in Las Vegas I was asked if there had been a lot of Mormon kids at my high school. Based on my experience, there had been a relatively good amount. I responded, "We had a few. About twelve." They replied, "We were thinking more along the lines of 200." I thought, "No, I can't say we had that."

And that's what it is like being a Mormon in the South. 

I've described myself as an active, oft-believing Mormon. My belief fluctuates depending on the day, what I'm reading, or what I'm thinking about. I was actually kind of surprised when Christopher Smith invited me to contribute to Worlds Without End. My friend Tyler Andersen (who is another contributor) had suggested me, but I was still personally surprised by the invitation. I'm not a historian. I really haven't been doing
Me (left), Chris (right)
anything in Mormon Studies besides reading a lot and participating in the online community. (For example, I had known Chris for a couple years prior through Mormon Dialogue and Discussion Board and Facebook.) I'm a business major. I'm not getting my Ph.D. in religious studies or sociology of religion or anything of sort, but I was nonetheless excited to break into the Mormon bloggernacle and see what I could contribute.

My first couple posts weren't too bad. The first one discussed the Greco-Roman understanding of grace and gratitude and its relation to Mormonism and positive psychology. The second looked at the psychological benefits of reading the Book of Mormon as you would a novel. But the third is where the very context of Worlds Without End really meant something to me. I had gone to see Sam Brown speak at a fireside in Arlington, TX on the subject of faith. He spoke a lot about choosing a relationship with God and how God chooses a relationship with us. At the time, it was something that I very much needed to hear. (I was also in the process of reading Terryl and Fiona Givens' The God Who Weeps.) I thought about Sam's fireside the rest of that week. I got home early one morning from my 12-hour night shift, sat down, and decided that I wanted to write my thoughts on Sam's fireside.

Now, I have a personal blog, but I'm not very personal on it. I try to keep it data-driven and philosophical (at least, as philosophical as a business major can be). But I wanted to talk about this idea of the weeping God and my chosen relationship with Him. I debated whether to post it on my personal blog or at Worlds Without End. But after reviewing Chris' vision for WWE, I decided this was content that belonged there.

I had a sister who died when she was eighteen (I was 11 at the time). In my post, I talked about how it affected me and how I came to think about death and the problem of evil and suffering. How did these things work within Mormonism? Did they work within Mormonism? I tried to coherently put my thoughts together and published it through Worlds Without End. This was by far my most personal blog post ever. It was here that the blog really came to life for me. This was not about (as Chris put it) the "insiders" and "outsiders" of Mormonism, but about coming together despite our differences and understanding a common purpose and drive. Even though Chris and others may not believe in a weeping God, they can benefit from my perspective and I can benefit from theirs. That's what I've noticed as a WWE contributor (I can't speak for audience members or random commenters): a unique blogging culture that is very supportive, encouraging, and loving, despite whatever theological or political backgrounds we might have. I still remember when Chris was introducing me as a new contributor on our Facebook page, he described me as "a Texas libertarian getting his MBA" (or something like that). I said to him, "Thanks, you've basically tarnished my reputation, you filthy socialist." (That's an ongoing joke I've had with him and others: they are all "filthy socialists" and I am a "filthy libertarian.") We can joke about those things and it is alright.

Don (left), Me (right)
After the Weeping God post, I began thinking about Don Bradley's 2006 Sunstone article "The Grand Fundamental Principles of Mormonism." Two of the principles Don identifies are "truth" and "friendship." I love how Don points out that when asked early on what the difference between Mormonism and the rest of Christianity was, Joseph Smith answered, "We believe the Bible and they do not."[1] A few years later, when Mormonism's doctrines became even more radical compared to traditional Christianity, the answer changed: "In reality and essence we do not differ so far in our religious views..."[2] Smith had become more interested in building bridges and bringing everyone into one grand whole. (Don argues that this was the beginning of an unfinished reformation and I think he is right.) The idea "to receive truth, let it come from where it may" stuck out to me.[3] "Have the Presbyterians any truth? Embrace that. Have the Baptists, Methodists, and so forth? Embrace that."[4] Bring all the goodness that you can into Mormonism.

I come from a Mormon paradigm. I was born and raised as a Mormon. That's how I understand the world. That's how I look at things. But it is always adjusting and in my interpretation of Mormon theology, it allows for it (and if objectively it doesn't, it should). I think being able to do this blog with Chris, Cheryl, and others allows us to find a community where we don't have to be afraid of each others' differences. We as individuals are often so worried about maintaining our own self-image and paradigm that we can become rather ferocious with people; people who may not even disagree with us all that much, but "err" in one point that we've become stuck on. But at Worlds Without End, I'm not scared to post anything. While some backlash may occur, the responses are usually constructive; seeking to refine the ideas you've laid out. The point is to help you become the best scholar and, ultimately, the best person you can be.

Me (left), Seth (right)
In his WWE post "A Defense of Sunstone," Seth Payne explained how the differing views found at Sunstone worked for him: "I am not suggesting Sunstone is the *only* place such questions can be explored. However, Sunstone was an appropriate and effective setting for me to ask questions and seek answers. My experience is not unique." Worlds Without End operates in a similar way for me. Commenting on Seth's post, Chris noted that this type of venue "humanizes scholarship and recognizes its practical, moral, religious, and relational dimensions. Sometimes scholarship gets so abstracted from human experience that we lose sight of what it’s all about." The very principle of Worlds Without End is this human notion: coming together despite our differences. The scholarship is important, but Chris hopes that this experiment expands beyond the limited confines of the blog. And in some small way, I feel like I'm living up to my religion by participating in this project and embracing the grand fundamental principles of truth and friendship. Bridget "Jack" Jeffries linked an inspired (as well as hilarious, though I'm not sure if that was her intent) comment to Seth's post:

The charges against [Sunstone]---that it's liberal, that it's heretical, that it fosters murmuring and apostasy, etc.---pertain to theological categories that I either do not recognize or do not care about. What might be called "conservative" Mormonism is still theologically liberal and heretical to me as an evangelical, so for those kinds of Mormons to accuse other kinds of Mormons of being those things means little to me on a personal level.

This is quite funny. Jack is upfront with her view: you're all heretics! But for those of you who know Jack, she's married to a Mormon. She got her undergrad at BYU. She doesn't dislike Mormons. She disagrees with them, but obviously she has plenty of love for them. She engages with Mormonism and thinks about it seriously. She goes on: "In any case, I want to be in dialogue with Mormons of all stripes, be they liberal, conservative, orthodox, heterodox, heretical, believing, ex, N[ew] O[rder] M[ormon], and everything in between..."

And that is what I feel at Worlds Without End. That is what we're trying to do. It isn't a blog solely for the Mormon fringe or for the devout. It is for any and all (sometimes not at all given our atheist contributors) and everything in between. We always hear in church that we should be an example to others. Your example will be more persuasive than any kind of argument. As cheesy as that sounds, it is true. I hope that the example set by Worlds Without End can have an influence on the way Mormon Studies is conducted (not to mention interfaith or human interaction in general). Embracing differences and viewing them as an opportunity to see from a different angle, obtain new information, learn more about yourself and others. The posts at Worlds Without End don't just focus on neat facts and historical tidbits, but often ask, "What do we do with that? What does Mormonism mean in the here and now? How does it, can it, and should it affect the world?" (Mormonism isn't just for some abstract heaven that may or may not exist.)

I think that was what Chris was hoping to achieve and so far, I think he's done really well. (I consider Chris and Bridget our fearless leaders. It takes guts to start a Mormon Studies blog as non-Mormons and to go out and round up a posse.) As a business major, I usually look at things from a practical manner: What can we do with that? How do we implement it? But part of the problem with modern management and corporations is the dehumanization of data. Many times, they do not think in human terms, only in numbers. Similarly, Mormon Studies can potentially be thought of in abstract terms and not in terms of human well-being. I hope that as Chris, Cheryl, and I continue to blog, we'll be able to keep the human element in mind.
Joe Swick (left), Cheryl (center), Me (right)

It may sound silly, but we're saving the world (or at least Mormon Studies) through blogging. Every blogger wants to change and save the world through blogging. But I don't think that is a bad goal, especially in something as new and as fresh as Mormon Studies. This is a field that has gone through some rough changes and hard shifts. A lot of people get hurt, get frustrated, lose friends, lose faith (sometimes regain faith). All in all, it has had a hard impact on a lot of people. Worlds Without End offers a model that can help avoid a lot of the hurt and anger that has been felt in Mormon Studies. Most know that it is when you are not weighed down by negative emotions that you operate the best. The moment you become angry and upset and more worried about your own self-image is when your scholarship is going to get shoddy. That's when you get personal. That's when it stops becoming worthwhile. If we can maintain it, Worlds Without End can be a great example to Mormon Studies scholars. Even when the comment section has become heated, it has always been handled well and defused. I can think of one example where a particular scholar (a non-contributor) came to the comment section of one of my posts in an attempt to reconcile with another commenter who had expressed ill-feelings from a previous encounter. I don't know if they ever did fully reconcile outside of the comments, but I was almost more excited about this attempted reconciliation that had taken place in the comments of my post than I was about the post itself.

That's what I think Worlds Without End can accomplish or, at the very least, try to influence. And I hope it does. Thank you.

1. Quoted in Bradley, 2006: 37.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.: 32.

4. Ibid.: 36.

Wednesday, August 7, 2013

WWE - "All Things Unto Me Are Spiritual": Worship Through Corporeality in Hasidism & Mormonism (Part 1)

Lead me to the truth and I 
will follow you with my whole life
Oh, lead me to the truth and I 
will follow you with my whole life 

- Mumford & Sons, "White Blank Page," Sigh No More (Island/Glassnote, 2009)

My latest addition to Worlds Without End is "'All Things Unto Me Are Spiritual': Worship Through Corporeality in Hasidism & Mormonism (Part 1)," which was co-written with my good friend Allen Hansen (aka "The Smartest Guy in the Room"). The idea for the post spawned from a comment Allen made on my "Holy Water" post:

This reinvention of the sacred is more or less what Hasidism means by worship through corporeality. Mundane acts can be sanctified and transformed, thereby influencing for the better cosmic processes in the divine. A verse commonly quoted was from Proverbs, "In all thy ways know him." That is, everything you do can become an act of worship. One of the examples often cited was the tradition of Enoch the Shoemaker, whose focus on the world of the divine whilst engaged in his work led to his eventual deification. However, Martin Buber paraphrased another Hasidic teaching which more fully resembles the ideals of Zion. "But if I am ‘for myself—if I do not participate with others, if I do not join with them— ‘what am I?’ Then everything in the way of good works which I have wrought alone is less than nothing in the eyes of God, who is the source of all good.” As one Jewish scholar has noted, collective effort can mend a broken world. 

We compare the Hasidic traditions with teachings found in 19th-century Mormonism. It seems that followers of both religions attempted to follow God with their whole lives rather than just the parts conveniently put aside for ritual and prayer.